May 2016

" as we know, there are known knowns; there are things we know we know.
We also know there are known unknowns;
that is to say we know there are some things we do not know.
But there are also unknown unknowns - the ones we don't know we don't know ".

Donald Rumsfeld, United States Secretary of Defense, briefing, 2002 ...

the same is true about schizophrenia - it remains a mystery

ANATOMY hippocampus

Hippocampus:- anatomy and function

Hippocampus imaging

Hippocampal failure is the proximate cause of schizophrenia. So, hippo early development is an important start to think how and why things have gone wrong.

Early hippocampus development

perinatal asphyxia and hippocampus damage

Perinatal hippocampus damage


pruning explained in The scientist Journal
pruning: does immunity play a part

Sekar et al :- Abtract
Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia's strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia in proportion to its tendency to generate greater expression of C4A. Human C4 protein localized to neuronal synapses, dendrites, axons, and cell bodies. In mice, C4 mediated synapse elimination during postnatal development. These results implicate excessive complement activity in the development of schizophrenia and may help explain the reduced numbers of synapses in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia.

attention fixes hippocampus

two memories co-operates

stress shifts the memory stream

oscillatory traffic

thalamic spindling: background

Comment on spindling

Hippocampus is a Hub

a Hub like this

email me

a carer site


adolescence is a time of brain 'pruning'.
It is also the time when schizophrenia most commonly starts, the florid illness preceded often by a time of cognitive and life coping failure.

What is pruning 'doing'
networking templates

Structural brain modules become more segregated during youth
Targeted strengthening of hub edges simultaneously promotes network efficiency
Enhanced modular segregation mediates improvements in executive function in youth. The human brain is organized into large-scale functional modules that have been shown to evolve in childhood and adolescence. However, it remains unknown whether the underlying white matter architecture is similarly refined during development, potentially allowing for improvements in executive function.

In a sample of 882 participants (ages 822) who underwent diffusion imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we demonstrate that structural network modules become more segregated with age, with weaker connections between modules and stronger connections within modules.
Evolving modular topology facilitates global network efficiency and is driven by age-related strengthening of hub edges present both within and between modules.
Critically, both modular segregation and network efficiency are associated with enhanced executive performance and mediate the improvement of executive functioning with age.

Together, results delineate a process of structural network maturation that supports executive function in youth.

New July 2017 :-

3.acute optogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in BNST during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in mice resulted in immediate transition to a wakefulness state without the function of orexins, highly important neuropeptides for maintaining wakefulness. Notably, stimulation of the same neurons during REM sleep did not show any effects on sleep/wakefulness states. Prolonged excitation of GABAergic neurons in BNST by a chemogenetic method evoked a longer-lasting, sustained wakefulness state, and it was abolished by administering a dual orexin receptor blocker (antagonist) DORA 22 in advance, meaning that orexins are involved in this phenomenon. "Our study revealed a role of the BNST GABAergic system in sleep/wakefulness control, especially in shifting animals' behavioral states from NREM sleep to wakefulness. Takeshi Sakurai Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba


new but obscure
3. Schizophrenia hippocampal neurogenesis influences

4(a). cerebellum in schizophrenia.... cerebellum reduction in schizophrenia ...

4(b). cerebellum in schizophrenia

academic references